Mass burial sites in Bikernieki forest, near Riga, Latvia. Bikernieki forest is Latvia’s biggest mass murder site during The Holocaust of World War II during years 1941-44. There are 55 marked mass burial sites in the forest. About 46,500 people were reported to have been killed there, including Latvian and Western European Jews, Soviet prisoners of war, and Nazis’ political adversaries.
This monument stands near the intersection of Harju and Niguliste Streets, on the northeast side of the St. Nicholas Church in Tallinn, Estonia. It consists of two large white stone tablets. The left tablet is a relief art sculpture with a number of people engaged in various activites. The right tablet has a relief sculpture of Eduard Vilde’s likeness (just the head), superimposed over a poem, that reads:
JANUNEB INIMESE HING
LOODUSE SUNDUSLIKULT ILU
JARELE JA KAS EI OLE
TEILE TEATAVAKS SAANUD
NÄHTUS, ET SUURED JA
SUGAVAD VAIMUD KÕIGIST
NAD KÕIK TÕE, ÕIGUSE
SEISAVAD ET NENDE SULG
RÕHUTUE EEST JA RÕHUJATE
VASTU, VAE VATUTE EEST
JA VAEVAJATE VASTU ET
ESTEETIK JA EETIK NENDE
TEOSTES ÜHISEKS AKORDIKS
KOONDUVAD NAD EI SAA
“Thirsty beauty of the human soul, when he is thirsty for truth in this – elutõe, ilutõe, kunstitõe, and, if you do not become known phenomenon that the spirits of all nations large and deep – writers, poets, philosophers – they all truth, justice and fairness in the service encounter to the bracket to take the downtrodden, and the oppressors against the oppressed, and vaevajate against the aesthetes and eetik their works in one chord to converge. they can not be otherwise, when the people you love.”
Eduard Vilde (4 March 1865 in Pudivere, Väike-Maarja Parish, Lääne-Viru County – 26 December 1933 in Tallinn) was an Estonian writer, a pioneer of critical realism in Estonian literature, and a diplomat. Author of classics such as The War in Mahtra and The Milkman from Mäeküla. He was one of the most revered figures in Estonian literature and is generally credited as being the country’s first professional writer.
Vilde grew on the farm where his father worked. In 1883 he began working as a journalist. He spent a great deal of his life traveling abroad and he lived for some time in Berlin in the 1890s, where he was influenced by materialism and socialism. His writings were also guided by the realism and naturalism of the French writer Émile Zola (1840–1902). In addition to being a prolific writer, he was also an outspoken critic of Tsarist rule and of the German landowners. With the founding of the first Estonian republic in 1919, he served as an ambassador in Berlin for several years, and spent the last years of his life editing and revising an enormous volume of his collected works.
Vasa (or Wasa) is a Swedish warship built between 1626 and 1628. The ship foundered and sank after sailing about 1,300 m (1,400 yd) into her maiden voyageon 10 August 1628. She fell into obscurity after most of her valuable bronze cannons were salvaged in the 17th century until she was located again in the late 1950s in a busy shipping lane just outside the Stockholm harbor. Salvaged with a largely intact hull in 1961, she was housed in a temporary museum calledWasavarvet (“The Wasa Shipyard”) until 1988 and then moved to the Vasa Museum in Stockholm. The ship is one of Sweden’s most popular tourist attractions and has been seen by over 29 million visitors since 1961. Since her recovery, Vasa has become a widely recognized symbol of the Swedish “great power period” and is today a de facto standard in the media and among Swedes for evaluating the historical importance of shipwrecks.
The ship was built on the orders of the King of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus as part of the military expansion he initiated in a war with Poland-Lithuania (1621–1629). She was constructed at the navy yard in Stockholm under a contract with private entrepreneurs in 1626–1627 and armed primarily with bronze cannons cast in Stockholm specifically for the ship. Richly decorated as a symbol of the king’s ambitions for Sweden and himself, upon completion she was one of the most powerfully armed vessels in the world. However, Vasa was dangerously unstable and top-heavy with too much weight in the upper structure of the hull. Despite this lack of stability she was ordered to sea and foundered only a few minutes after encountering a wind stronger than a breeze.
The order to sail was the result of a combination of factors. The king, who was leading the army in Poland at the time of her maiden voyage, was impatient to see her take up her station as flagship of the reserve squadron at Älvsnabben in the Stockholm Archipelago. At the same time the king’s subordinates lacked the political courage to openly discuss the ship’s structural problems or to have the maiden voyage postponed. An inquiry was organized by the Swedish Privy Councilto find those responsible for the disaster, but in the end no one was punished for the fiasco.
During the 1961 recovery, thousands of artifacts and the remains of at least 15 people were found in and around the Vasa’s hull by marine archaeologists. Among the many items found were clothing, weapons, cannons, tools, coins, cutlery, food, drink and six of the ten sails. The artifacts and the ship herself have provided scholars with invaluable insights into details of naval warfare, shipbuilding techniques and everyday life in early 17th-century Sweden.
Backlighting. St. Catherine’s Dominican Monastery, Tallinn, Estonia.
St. Catherine’s Dominican Monastery (13th century), often simply the Dominican Monastery (Estonian: Dominiiklaste Klooster), is a former monastery and one of the oldest buildings in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. It is located in the heart of Tallinn’s Old Town district full of warehouses and merchants’ houses. Its remains constitute one of two remaining medieval monastery complexes in Tallinn. In 1524, during the Reformation, the monastery was destroyed. Only fragments remain of the original complex. Parts have been incorporated into the Roman Catholic St. Peter and St. Paul’s Cathedral, and other parts, including a finely carved portal, are visible via St. Catherine’s Passage.
The Tridentine Mass is the Roman Rite Mass which appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962. The most widely used Mass liturgy in the world until the introduction of the Mass of Paul VI in 1969, it is celebrated in Liturgical Latin. The Mass of Paul VI is a form of Mass in the Catholic Church, promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1969 after the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). It is now the ordinary or standard form of the Roman Rite Mass.
“Tridentine” is derived from the Latin Tridentinus, “related to the city of Tridentum” (modern-day Trent, Italy). In response to a decision of the Council of Trent Pope Pius V promulgated the 1570 Roman Missal, making it mandatory throughout the Western Church, except in places and religious orders with missals from before 1370. Other names used include Traditional Mass and Latin Mass, although the revised form of the Mass that replaced it has its official text in Latin and is sometimes celebrated in that language.
In Masses celebrated without the people, Latin Rite Catholic priests are free to use either the 1962 version of the Tridentine liturgy or the “ordinary” form of the liturgy. These Masses “may — observing all the norms of law — also be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, ask to be admitted.” Permission to use the Tridentine form in parish Masses may be given by the pastor or rector.
St. Alban’s Church, locally often referred to simply as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Churchill Park, Copenhagen, Denmark.
It was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city. Designed by Arthur Blomfield as a traditional English parish church in the Gothic Revival style, it is in a peaceful park setting at the end of Amaliegade in the northern part of the city centre, next to the citadel Kastellet and the Gefion Fountain and Langelinie.
The church is part of Church of England’s Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to Saint Alban, the first martyr of Great Britain.
St. Alban’s Church is designed as a traditional English church by Arthur Blomfield who designed a number of parish churches around Britain and received the Royal Institute of British Architects’ Royal Gold Medal in 1891. It is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by theEarly English Style, also known as Lancet Gothic.
The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns and Åland stone for the spire. The conspicuous use of flint as a building material, unusual in Denmark, is another typical trait from England where it is commonly seen in church buildings in the south of the country, particularly East Anglia. The tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire.
Camera: Kodak Brownie Starlet
Manufacturer: Eastman Kodak Co
Origin: USA & France (This version is from France)
Produced: July 1957 – June 1962
Lens: Dakon, Plastic
Focal Length: 50 or 60mm by estimate
Aperture: 13 Color / 14 B&W (EV values)
Filter Available: No
Shutter Speed: About 1/30 or 1/60s by estimate
Shutter: Rotary, Guillotine type, Behind-the-lens
Shutter Release: Lever, Cable release
Self Timer: No
Focus Mode: Fixed focus
Exposure Metering / Control: No
Shooting Modes: Point-and-shoot
Exposure Count: On film through red window on back of camera
Multiple Exposure: No
Film Advance / Rewind: Uncoupled Manual, Winding knob
Film Release Button: Lever to open the bottom of the camera
Film / Aspect Ratio / Framing: 127 film / 1:1 (4x4cm)
ASA/ISO Range / DIN: Takes all ASA
Flash: PC connector
Tripod Socket: No
Carrying Strap: Socket for Neck strap
Dimensions (l, h, d): 93 x 88 x 60 mm
The Brownie Starlet was a simple plastic fixed focus camera made by Kodak starting in 1957. It was one of the very successful “star” series of Brownies.
The Kodak Brownie Starlet is one model of the star series.
The Starlet comes with a few minor differences, the red lever indicates that it’s from France while the grey is from US. The Brownie or sometimes Kodak branding are mostly placed at the left (as mine above) but on some placed at the right, I’m not sure whether these differences depends on if it’s made in the US or France or if it’s various annual volumes, but it’s still the same camera. This model continued as the Brownie Bullet II camera from 1961. There is a Kodak Brownie Starlet II model which differ a bit in the body and are more angular built. (Information from cameramaniacs.com)