Sentry box in Alcatraz

© RicardMN Photography

© RicardMN Photography

Alcatraz Island is an island located in the San Francisco Bay, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.
Often referred to as “The Rock” or simply “Traz”, the small island was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison, and a Federal Bureau of Prisons federal prison until 1963. Beginning in November 1969, the island was occupied for more than 19 months by a group of American Indians from San Francisco, who were part of a wave of Indian activism across the nation, with public protests through the 1970s. Later, in 1972, Alcatraz became a national recreation area and received designation as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.

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Temple Of Juno

© RicardMN Photography

© RicardMN Photography

Remains of the Temple of Juno in the Valle dei Templi in Agrigento, Sicily, southern Italy.

This temple was constructed on a mostly artificial spur. It dates to c. 450 BC, measuring 38.15 x 16.90 m: it is in Doric style, peripteros 6 columns wide by 13 long, preceded by a pronaos and opisthodomos. The basement has four steps.
Current remains (including anastylosis from the 18th Century onwards) consist of the front colonnade with parts of the architrave and of the frieze. Only fragments of the other three sides survive, with few elements of the cella. The building was damaged in the fire of 406 BC and restored in Roman times, with the substitution of clay marble roof tiles with ones and the addition of a steep rise in the area where today can be seen the remains of the altar.
Nearby are arcosolia and other sepultures from Byzantine times, belonging to the late 6th century AD renovation of the Temple of Concordia into a Christian church.

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Old tools on the little window

© RicardMN Photography

© RicardMN Photography

Old tools on the little window at Locke’s Distillery, Kilbeggan, Westmeath, Midlands, Ireland.

Outside the window, we can see the 19th-century waterwheel that provides power to the equipment needed to make the traditional Irish whiskey.

John Locke’s distillery at Kilbeggan in County Westmeath is a working industrial heritage museum set up and run by local volunteers of the Kilbeggan Preservation and Development Association Ltd since 1982. In 1987 the site was bought by Cooley’s Distillery and in 2010 also secured the lease for the visitor’s centre there. To celebrate their one-millionth visitor, Locke’s Distillery Museum held a free open-day on 10th September 2011 which was well attended and a great success. Incidentally, the one-millionth visitor came from Germany.

Locke’s Distillery produces pure Pot Still Irish whiskey as well as having some 40,000 sq. ft. of storage space at Kilbeggan, also used for the storage and maturation of whiskey produced by Cooleys. Kilbeggan is also unique in having a 180 year old licensed pot still with a capacity to produce 25,000 cases a year of pot-still whiskey, most of it going to export. Since 2010 Kilbeggan distillery has also introduced its own full milling, mashing, fermentation and distillation processes carried out using more traditional methods. (Information taken from Wikipedia and “Kilbeggan, out & about” by Stuart).

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Steam engine flywheel at Locke’s Distillery

© RicardMN Photography

© RicardMN Photography

Steam engine flywheel at Locke’s Distillery, Kilbeggan, Westmeath, Midlands, Ireland.

A 19th-century waterwheel provides power to the equipment needed to make the traditional Irish whiskey. Nevertheless a steam engine was also installed to provide a back-up power source, in case of low water levels in the river Brosna, but has rarely been used.

John Locke’s distillery at Kilbeggan in County Westmeath is a working industrial heritage museum set up and run by local volunteers of the Kilbeggan Preservation and Development Association Ltd since 1982. In 1987 the site was bought by Cooley’s Distillery and in 2010 also secured the lease for the visitor’s centre there. To celebrate their one-millionth visitor, Locke’s Distillery Museum held a free open-day on 10th September 2011 which was well attended and a great success. Incidentally, the one-millionth visitor came from Germany.

Locke’s Distillery produces pure Pot Still Irish whiskey as well as having some 40,000 sq. ft. of storage space at Kilbeggan, also used for the storage and maturation of whiskey produced by Cooleys. Kilbeggan is also unique in having a 180 year old licensed pot still with a capacity to produce 25,000 cases a year of pot-still whiskey, most of it going to export. Since 2010 Kilbeggan distillery has also introduced its own full milling, mashing, fermentation and distillation processes carried out using more traditional methods.

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Copper Pot Stills And Column Still At Lockes Distillery BW

© RicardMN Photography

© RicardMN Photography

Two of three copper pot stills at Locke’s Distillery, Kilbeggan, Westmeath, Midlands, Ireland, which were installed in the late 1970s. These were recovered from the Tullamore Dew Distillery before it was demolished in 1990 to make way for a shopping mall and carpark. Originally, there were four similar copper stills at Locke’s but sadly these were broken up for scrap in 1974 during which time the old distillery also lost some other internal fittings and equipment. Fortunately, most remained and ensured the authenticity of the place as a working industrial museum.

The copper stills similar to the originals once at Locke’s in Kilbeggan, were produced by Millars & Co Ltd of Church Street, Dublin.

A column still, also called a continuous still, patent still or Coffey still, is a variety of still consisting of two columns.

The first column (called the analyzer) in a column still has steam rising and wash descending through several levels. The second column (called the rectifier) carries the alcohol from the wash, where it circulates until it can condense at the required strength.

Column stills behave like a series of single pot stills, formed in a long vertical tube. The tube is filled with either porous packing or bubble plates. The rising vapour, which is low in alcohol, starts to condense in the cooler, higher level of the column. The temperature of each successively higher stage is slightly lower than the previous stage, so the vapour in equilibrium with the liquid at each stage is progressively more enriched with alcohol. Whereas a single pot still charged with wine might yield a vapour enriched to 40-50% alcohol, a column still can achieve a vapour alcohol content of 96%; an azeotropic mixture of alcohol and water. Further enrichment is only possible by absorbing the remaining water using other means, such as hydrophilic chemicals or azeotropic distillation.

A column still is an example of a fractional distillation, in that it yields a narrow fraction of the distillable components. This technique is frequently employed in chemical synthesis; in this case, the component of the still responsible for the separation is a fractionating column.

A continuous still can, as its name suggests, sustain a constant process of distillation. This, along with the ability to produce a higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate, is its main advantage over a pot still, which can only work in batches. Continuous stills are charged with preheated feed liquor at some point in the column. Heat (usually in the form of steam) is supplied to the base of the column. Stripped (approximately alcohol-free) liquid is drawn off at the base, while alcoholic spirits are condensed after migrating to the top of the column.

Column stills are frequently used in the production of grain whisky and is the most commonly used type of still in the production of Bourbon and other American whiskeys. Distillation by column still is the traditional method for production of Armagnac, although distillation by pot still is allowed. The use of column stills for the distillation of Cognac is forbidden. Distillation by column stills are permitted for Calvados AOC and Calvados Domfrontais. Calvados Pays d’Auge AOC is required to be distilled by pot still.

John Locke’s distillery at Kilbeggan in County Westmeath is a working industrial heritage museum set up and run by local volunteers of the Kilbeggan Preservation and Development Association Ltd since 1982. In 1987 the site was bought by Cooley’s Distillery and in 2010 also secured the lease for the visitor’s centre there. To celebrate their one-millionth visitor, Locke’s Distillery Museum held a free open-day on 10th September 2011 which was well attended and a great success. Incidentally, the one-millionth visitor came from Germany.

Locke’s Distillery produces pure Pot Still Irish whiskey as well as having some 40,000 sq. ft. of storage space at Kilbeggan, also used for the storage and maturation of whiskey produced by Cooleys. Kilbeggan is also unique in having a 180 year old licensed pot still with a capacity to produce 25,000 cases a year of pot-still whiskey, most of it going to export. Since 2010 Kilbeggan distillery has also introduced its own full milling, mashing, fermentation and distillation processes carried out using more traditional methods.

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Window And Little Dressing Table In An Old Thatched Cottage

© RicardMN Photography

© RicardMN Photography

Window and little dressing table in an old thatched Cottage in The Kerry Bog Village, Ballincleave, Glenbeigh, Co. Kerry, Ireland.

The Kerry Bog Village, located on the beautiful ‘Ring of Kerry’, gives people an insight into how people lived and worked in Ireland in the 18th Century. The village is the only one of its kind in Europe The Village contains four period thatched cottages and an old blacksmiths forge. The cottages contain furniture from the era and figurines to re-enact the times.

A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material, often mosses, in most cases, Sphagnum moss. It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire, quagmire and muskeg.

Frequently, as the illustration on the right shows, they are covered in Ericaceous shrubs rooted in the Sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog forms a carbon sink.

Bogs occur where the water at the ground surface is acidic and low in nutrients. In some cases, the water is got entirely from precipitation, in which case they are (rain-fed). Water flowing out of bogs has a characteristic brown colour, which comes from dissolved peat tannins.

In general the low fertility and cool climate results in relatively slow plant growth, but decay is even slower owing to the saturated soil. Hence peat accumulates. Large areas of landscape can be covered many meters deep in peat. Bogs have a distinctive group of plant and animal species, and are of high importance for biodiversity, particularly in landscapes that are otherwise settled and farmed.

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